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anxiety disorder Archives - Suzanne Wallach

OCD Unraveled: A Guide to Behavioral Therapy

Obsessive-compulsive disorder

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic condition that is classified in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) as an anxiety disorder. OCD is characterized by unreasonable, uncontrollable, or recurring thoughts (obsessions) followed by a behavioral response (compulsions). Obsessions are defined as “repeated thoughts, urges, or mental images that cause anxiety.” Compulsions are defined as “repetitive behaviors that a person with OCD feels the urge to do in response to an obsessive thought.” The International OCD Foundation asserts that OCD equally affects men, women, and children of all races, ethnicities, and backgrounds. While the exact cause of OCD is not fully understood, research suggests that a combination of genetic, neurological, behavioral, cognitive, and environmental factors may contribute to its development. According to Anxiety and Depression Association of America approximately 2.3% of the population has OCD, which is about 1 in 40 adults and 1 in 100 children in the U.S. Fortunately, there are effective treatments for OCD, with behavioral therapy being one of the most widely used and recommended approaches.

Behavioral Therapy for OCD

A specific form of cognitive-behavioral therapy known as exposure and response prevention (ERP) has been shown to be highly effective in managing OCD symptoms. ERP is based on the idea that exposure to feared thoughts, images, and situations, coupled with the prevention of compulsive behaviors, can help individuals learn to tolerate anxiety without resorting to compulsions. Through repeated exposure to these triggers, individuals gradually learn that their anxiety will decrease over time, even without engaging in compulsive behaviors.

The first step in ERP is to identify the specific obsessions and compulsions that are most distressing to the individual. This may involve keeping a diary of these thoughts and behaviors to better understand their patterns and triggers. Once these are identified, the therapist works with the individual to create a hierarchy of feared situations, starting with the least anxiety-provoking and gradually progressing to more challenging scenarios.

Exposure exercises are then conducted, where the individual is exposed to the feared stimuli while refraining from engaging in compulsions. This can be done in imagination, through writing, or in real-life situations, depending on the individual’s comfort level. The goal is to remain in the situation long enough for the anxiety to decrease naturally, without the need for compulsive behaviors.

Throughout the therapy process, the therapist provides support, guidance, and feedback to help the individual manage their anxiety and resist the urge to engage in compulsions. Over time, individuals typically experience a reduction in their OCD symptoms and an improved quality of life.

It is important to note that ERP can be challenging and may initially increase anxiety levels. However, with consistent practice and support, many individuals find relief from their OCD symptoms and can lead more fulfilling lives. In addition to ERP, medication, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), may be prescribed to help manage OCD symptoms. Combining medication with therapy is often the most effective approach for many individuals with OCD.

Key Takeaways

While OCD can be a debilitating disorder, with the right treatment, individuals can learn to manage their symptoms and lead fulfilling lives. Behavioral therapy, particularly ERP, is a highly effective treatment for OCD and offers hope to those struggling with this disorder. If you or someone you know is experiencing symptoms of OCD, it is important to seek help from a qualified mental health professional who can provide a proper diagnosis and recommend appropriate treatment options.

Treatment In Calabasas

Calabasas is a city in California. It is a well-known suburb of Los Angeles, located west of the San Fernando Valley and north of the Santa Monica Mountains. Over the past decade, the city of Calabasas has grown in its reputation for luxury as well as for privacy which makes it a hidden gem for residential living for society’s elite, and one of the most desirable destinations in Los Angeles County. It is also home to a plethora of highly qualified mental health clinicians providing an array of therapeutic services and treatment options.

The information above is provided for the use of informational purposes only. The above content is not to be substituted for professional advice, diagnosis, or treatment, as in no way is it intended as an attempt to practice medicine, give specific medical advice, including, without limitation, advice concerning the topic of mental health. As such, please do not use any material provided above to disregard professional advice or delay seeking treatment.

 

 

Behavioral Therapy For OCD: A Comprehensive Guide

Behavioral Therapy

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic condition that is classified in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) as an anxiety disorder. OCD is characterized by unreasonable, uncontrollable, or recurring thoughts (obsessions) followed by a behavioral response (compulsions). Obsessions are defined as “repeated thoughts, urges, or mental images that cause anxiety.” Compulsions are defined as “repetitive behaviors that a person with OCD feels the urge to do in response to an obsessive thought.” The International OCD Foundation asserts that OCD equally affects men, women, and children of all races, ethnicities, and backgrounds. According to Anxiety and Depression Association of America approximately 2.3% of the population has OCD, which is about 1 in 40 adults and 1 in 100 children in the U.S. The gold standard treatment for OCD includes a specific component of CBT (cognitive behavioral therapy), known as exposure with response prevention (ERP) or exposure therapy.

Behavioral Therapy: CBT/ ERP

Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is a structured, short-term, goal-oriented form of talk therapy. Positive Psychology explains CBT as a “psycho-social intervention that focuses on changing unhelpful thoughts, beliefs, attitudes and behaviors, improve emotional regulation and create a suite of coping strategies to solve problematic issues.” The CBT model fundamentally believes that the meanings assigned to incidences are what drive the associated upsetting emotions, not the events themselves. During CBT sessions, an individual will have the opportunity to test out their automatic thoughts and see if they are accurate or if they are simply a direct manifestation of an inaccurate, dysfunctional assumption. Through CBT a person can learn to replace these erroneous assumptions and adjust negative self-views by way of behavior modification, which is reinforced through exposure therapy.

Exposure therapy is a highly effective, evidence-based treatment technique that aims to help people break unhealthy behavioral patterns through systematically exposing individuals to their obsessive thoughts and/ or situations that trigger their obsessions, guiding them to replace these dysfunctional patterns with positive thinking patterns, and ultimately preventing the associated compulsive behaviors. The American Psychological Association (APA) indicate that there are several variations of exposure therapy (e.g., in vivo exposure, imaginal exposure, interceptive exposure, etc.). The APA further explains that exposure therapy in CBT can be paced in different ways:

  • Graded exposure: The facilitating mental health provider helps the individual construct an exposure fear hierarchy, which entails ranking feared objects, activities, or situations according to difficulty. They begin with mildly or moderately difficult exposures, then progress to more difficult ones.
  • Flooding: Using the exposure fear hierarchy to begin exposure with the most difficult tasks.
  • Systematic desensitization: Combining exposure with relaxation exercises to make them feel more manageable and to associate the feared objects, activities, or situations with relaxation.

Research has shown the more exposure is disseminated is directly linked to treatment outcome and improved mental health.

Treatment In Calabasas

Calabasas is a city in California. It is a well-known suburb of Los Angeles, located west of the San Fernando Valley and north of the Santa Monica Mountains. Over the past decade, the city of Calabasas has grown in its reputation for luxury as well as for privacy which makes it a hidden gem for residential living for society’s elite, and one of the most desirable destinations in Los Angeles County. It is also home to a plethora of highly qualified mental health clinicians providing an array of therapeutic services and treatment options.

The information above is provided for the use of informational purposes only. The above content is not to be substituted for professional advice, diagnosis, or treatment, as in no way is it intended as an attempt to practice medicine, give specific medical advice, including, without limitation, advice concerning the topic of mental health. As such, please do not use any material provided above to disregard professional advice or delay seeking treatment.

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